Nowadays, X-ray crystallography is one of the most popular structural biology methods. Successful crystallization depends not only on the quality of the protein sample, precipitant composition, pH or other biophysical and biochemical parameters, but also largely on the use of crystallization technique. Some proteins are difficult to be crystallized using basic crystallization methods; therefore, several advanced methods for macromolecular crystallization have been developed. This chapter briefly reviews the most promising advanced crystallization techniques and strategies as one of the efficient tools for crystallization of macromolecules. Crystallization in capillaries, gels, microfluidic chips, electric and magnetic fields as well as crystallization under microgravity condition and crystallization in living cells are briefly described.
Part of the book: Crystallization and Applications