Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an important nuclear receptor, regulates the cellular response to environmental stressors. It is well known for its critical functions in toxicology, but is currently considered an essential regulator of diseases, with specific modulatory effects on immune, antimicrobial and inflammatory responses. The present chapter discusses AhR’s function and mechanism in the immune response against microbial infections.
Part of the book: Antimicrobial Immune Response
Vibrio is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria, which is widely distributed in marine and estuarine environments worldwide. It is an important component of the aquatic ecosystem and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycle. Its population dynamics are usually affected by climate and seasonal factors. Most of the Vibrios in the environment are not pathogenic, but some of them are pathogenic bacteria for human and animal, such as Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio anguillarum, etc., which are generally reported to be related to aquatic animal diseases and human food-borne diseases. Over the last couple of years, due to the influence of the rising seawater temperature and climate change, the incidence of diseases caused by Vibrio infection has increased significantly, which poses a great threat to human health and aquaculture. The research on pathogenic Vibrio has attracted more and more attention. The abundance and community changes of Vibrio in the environment are usually controlled by many biological and abiotic factors. The Vibrio pathogenicity is related to the virulence factors encoded by virulence genes. The process of Vibrio infecting the host and causing host disease is determined by multiple virulence factors acting together, instead of being determined by a single virulence factor. In this chapter, community changes of Vibrio, as well as the virulence factors of Vibrio and the related virulence genes of Vibiro are summarized, and their important roles in Vibrio infection are also discussed.
Part of the book: Infections and Sepsis Development