Immune responses of the host to any infectious agents vary in controlling the pathogens. The process begins by the entry of microorganisms into the host to initiate host immune response to understand the type of microorganisms and react accordingly for possible elimination of the organisms. In some cases the host co-exists with the pathogens or unable to effectively deal with them leading to disease condition. Thus, the pathogens establish, multiply and cause disease. The review considered the mode of acquisition of infection, pathogenesis and immune responses to microbial infection. Other areas included the enhancement of immune responses to control infection, immune responses of the host under drug treatment and the control of microbial infection. The understanding of the relationship between infectious microbes and the host immune system leading to protective immunity or disease state will give much information about treatment and controlling of microbial infection in our environment.
Part of the book: Antimicrobial Immune Response
Macrophages are critical effector cells of the innate immune system that play central roles in the initiation and resolution of inflammation. They mediate resistance in response to pathogens and “danger” signals mainly through phagocytosis. Macrophages and other cells co-operate and complement one another in host defense. As innate immune cells, they also contribute to the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Therefore, appropriate activation of macrophages would aid effective immune response in curbing many infections. This chapter explores how the interaction and roles of macrophages influence outcomes during infections. It is expected that understanding these fundamental mechanisms may help stimulate research to exploit macrophages for therapeutic benefits.
Part of the book: Macrophages