Understanding of relative distribution of avifauna provides insights for the conservation and management of wildlife in the community managed areas. This study examined relative diversity, abundance, and distribution of avifauna in selected habitat types across five Wildlife Management Areas of the Ruvuma landscape in miombo vegetation, southern Tanzania. Five habitat types were surveyed during the study: farmland, swamps, riverine forest, dense and open woodland. Transect lines, mist-netting, and point count methods were used to document 156 species of birds in the study sites. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare species richness and diversity across habitat types. We found differences in avifaunal species distribution in the study area whereby farmland had the highest abundance of avifauna species and lowest in the riverine forest. These results suggest that variations of avifauna species abundance, diversity, and distribution could be attributed by human activities across habitat types; due to the reason that habitats with less human encroachment had good species diversity and richness. Therefore, to improve avitourism and avoid local extinction of species, we urge for prompt action to mitigate species loss by creating awareness in the adjacent community through conservation education on the importance of protecting such biodiversity resources.
Part of the book: Birds
In Tanzania, pure grasslands cover is estimated to be 60,381 km2, about 6.8% of the total land area, and is distributed in different parts. These grasslands are diverse in dominant grass species depending on rainfall, soil type, altitude, and management or grazing system. They support livestock and wildlife distributed in different eco-tomes and habitats of the country. The potential of grasslands for the livelihood of rural people is explicit from the fact that local people depend solely on natural production to satisfy their needs for animal products. Analysis of grazing lands indicated that livestock population, production of meat, and milk from grasslands increased. But the wildlife population, when considered in terms of livestock equivalent units (Large Herbivore Units) showed a declining trend. The contribution of grasslands to the total volume of meat produced in the country showed a declining state, while milk production showed a slight increase. This situation entails a need to evaluate the grasslands of Tanzania to ascertain their potential for supporting people’s livestock, wildlife, and livelihood. This study concluded that more research is needed to establish the possibility of grasslands to keep large numbers of grazing herbivores for sustainable livestock and wildlife production.
Part of the book: Grasses and Grassland