The two-component system (TCS) is a regulatory system composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR), which participates in the bacterial adaptation to external stimuli. Sulfur oxidation and ferrous iron oxidation are basic energy metabolism systems for chemoautotrophic acidophilic bacteria in acid mine environments. Understanding how these bacteria perceive and respond to complex environmental stimuli offers insights into oxidization mechanisms and the potential for improved applications. In this chapter, we summarized the TCSs involved in the regulation of sulfur and ferrous iron metabolic pathways in these acidophilic bacteria. In particular, we examined the role and molecular mechanism of these TCSs in the regulation of iron and sulfur oxidation in Acidithiobacillus spp.. Moreover, research perspectives on TCSs in acidophilic bacteria are discussed in this section.
Part of the book: Acidophiles