Acid resistance of acidophiles is the result of long-term co-evolution and natural selection of acidophiles and their natural habitats, and formed a relatively optimal acid-resistance network in acidophiles. The acid tolerance network of acidophiles could be classified into active and passive mechanisms. The active mechanisms mainly include the proton efflux and consumption systems, generation of reversed transmembrane electrical potential, and adjustment of cell membrane composition; the passive mechanisms mainly include the DNA and protein repair systems, chemotaxis and cell motility, and quorum sensing system. The maintenance of pH homeostasis is a cell-wide physiological process that adopt differently adjustment strategies, deployment modules, and integration network depending on the cell’s own potential and its habitat environments. However, acidophiles exhibit obvious strategies and modules similarities on acid resistance because of the long-term evolution. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of acid tolerance network of acidophiles would be helpful for the intelligent manufacturing and industrial application of acidophiles.
Part of the book: Acidophiles