Changes in intestinal permeability have been determined to influence secondary inflammatory reactions and clinical manifestations such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) secondary to cirrhosis. As of yet, no in-depth exploration of the changes in the microbiota and how this influences cirrhosis to differ from clinically more severe cases than others has not begun. However, at the level of pathophysiological mechanism, it must be taken into account that due to the abuse of substances such as alcohol and chronic fatty liver disease, changes in the bacterial composition and intestinal permeability are induced. This set of changes in the bacterial composition (microbiome) and modification of the intestinal permeability could be related to the presence of ascites and spontaneous peritonitis secondary to cirrhosis, being of relevance the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, as well as clinical manifestation. Prophylaxis and antibiotic treatment of SBP requires clinical knowledge for the treatment decisions based mainly on the presence of ascitic fluid, accompanied of risk factors, laboratory indexes such as PMN count and culture results, in order to determine the kind of molecule that will help to the SBP recovery or to amelioration symptoms, always taking care of not exceed the antibiotic consumption and restoring the microbiome imbalance.
Part of the book: Advances in Hepatology