Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder and characterized by hyperglycemia. Being a concern of both the developed and developing world, diabetes is a global health burden and is a major cause of mortality world-wide. The most common is the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is mainly caused by resistance to insulin. Long-term complications of diabetes cause microvascular related problems (eg. nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) along with macrovascular complications (eg. cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease). Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates homeostasis of body fluid that in turn, maintains blood pressure. Thus, RAAS plays pivotal role in the pathogenesis of long-term DM complications like cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney diseases. T2DM is a polygenic disease, and the roles of RAAS components in insulin signaling pathway and insulin resistance have been well documented. Hyperglycemia has been found to be associated with the increased plasma renin activity, arterial pressure and renal vascular resistance. Several studies have reported involvement of single variants within particular genes in initiation and development of T2D using different approaches. This chapter aims to investigate and discuss potential genetic polymorphisms underlying T2D identified through candidate gene studies, genetic linkage studies, genome wide association studies.
Part of the book: Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System