Clinical Use of Progesterone and Its Relation to Oxidative Stress in Ruminants
Studies to determine the physiological effects and functions of progesterone started in the twentieth century. Progesterone is a steroid-structured hormone with 21 carbon atoms originating from cholesterol. The corpus luteum, formed after ovulation in ruminants, secretes progesterone, which plays a role in the continuity of the pregnancy. Progestagens can be used for estrus synchronization in cows and heifers. Similarly, they are used for estrus synchronization during the breeding season or outside the breeding season by taking advantage of the negative feedback effect of progesterone in small ruminants. It is applied for the treatment of embryonic deaths due to luteal insufficiency in cows with high milk yield. In anovulatory anestrus, exogenous progesterone applications can be very useful. Progesterone treatment contributes to the resolution of the anestrus by rearranging hypothalamic functions in cattle with follicular cysts. The oxidative stress index in the luteal phase, when progesterone is high in ruminants, is higher than in the follicular phase. In the critical period of pregnancy, a high index of oxidative stress-induced progesterone causes embryonic death. Factors that cause stress in high milk-yielding cows can affect the amount of progesterone synthesis by inhibiting luteal cell function due to excessive free radical production.
Part of the book: Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases
Kisspeptin: Role in Female Infertility
Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide encoded by the kisspeptin gene (Kiss1) and located in different brain regions, primarily in the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin and its receptor G-protein-coupled receptor-54 (GPR54), are also found in behavioural brain regions such as the hippocampus and cortex. Kisspeptin, a very powerful neuropeptide that stimulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary, does this by increasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels. In recent studies, it has been noted that kisspeptin is effective on reproductive functions. Globally 8 to 12% of couples have infertility problems, and the majority are residents of developing countries. Approximately 70% of infertility cases are caused by fertility problems in women. The frequency of infertility in women continues to increase every year and the underlying factors require further research. Bearing this problem in mind, this review examines the possible role of kisspeptin in female infertility. In doing so, it aims to find out how future application of kisspeptin may potentially unravel the neural reproductive disorder.
Part of the book: Reproductive Hormones
Thiols: Role in Oxidative Stress-Related Disorders
The effects of oxidative stress occur as a result of peroxidative damage of the macromolecule and membranes of the cells and with the disruption of metabolic activities in the components of the cells in living organisms. Organ and tissue pathologies are known to occur when oxidative stress is excessive in the body. It is known that thiols are one of the main protective mechanisms of the body against oxidative stress. Thiols have been shown to play important roles in enzymatic reactions, apoptosis, detoxification and antioxidant protection in the body. Many studies have shown changes in thiol status and thiol/disulphide homeostasis in various diseases such as digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system, urinary system, metabolic diseases and cancer. This also shows that the thiol state is very important in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Therefore, it is thought that interventions that can improve thiol status may contribute to the prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.
Part of the book: Accenting Lipid Peroxidation
Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Various Disease Processes: An Overview
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a physiological system that plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and body water-electrolyte balance, in which the kidney, liver and lungs play a role in its activation. This system comes into play in various diseases such as the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and nervous system where blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance may change. The purpose of this study, which is presented in line with this information, is to explain the working principle of this system, how this system is activated, how it comes into play in the mentioned diseases, and what kind of results occur.
Part of the book: Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System
Can Polyphenols be Used as Anti-Inflammatory Agents against Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2)-Induced Inflammation?
Covid-19 is the causative agent of a beta coronavirus that causes severe inflammatory pneumonia, so excessive inflammation is considered a risk factor for the disease. In Covid-19 disease, an inflammatory response develops in the body. It has been reported as a result of various studies that this response causes damage to various organs and tissues, especially the lungs. According to reports, cytokine storms are largely responsible for death in such patients. Some of the consequences of severe inflammation and cytokine storms include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Many studies are showing that there may be various agents to prevent or treat these effects of Covid-19 disease. Some of these agents are phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant substances in vegetables and fruits. Inflammasomes, their function. It has been stated that phenolic compounds inhibit inflammation by inhibiting cytosolic multiprotein complexes that assemble in response to cytosolic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to form active forms of IL-1β and IL-18. It suggested that Apigenin, Resveratrol, Morin, and Silymarin an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-viral, and anti-microbial compound could be a potential therapeutic agent for severe inflammation from Covid-19.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds
Leptin and Its Role in Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis: An OverviewView all chapters
Adipose tissue (AT) in the body plays a very important role in the regulation of energy metabolism. AT regulates energy metabolism by secreting adipokines. Some of the adipokines released are vaspin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin and omentin, and leptin. In addition to regulating energy metabolism, leptin plays a role in the regulation of many physiological functions of the body such as regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, nutrition, appetite, insulin and glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, coagulation, and apoptosis. Among all these physiological functions, the relationship between leptin, oxidative stress, and apoptosis has gained great importance recently due to its therapeutic effect in various types of cancer. For this reason, in this study, the release of leptin, its cellular effects and its effect on oxidative stress, and apoptosis are discussed in line with current information.
Part of the book: Role of Obesity in Human Health and Disease