Increased attention has been placed on the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and pathogenetic mechanisms in cardiovascular disease. Multiple studies have presented data to suggest that cardiac and arterial stiffness leading to adverse remodeling of both the heart and vasculature leads to the various pathological changes seen in coronary artery disease, heart failure (with preserved and reduced ejection fractions), hypertension and renal disease. Over-activation of the RAAS is felt to contribute to these structural and endocrinological changes through its control of the Na+/K+ balance, fluid volume, and hemodynamic stability. Subsequently, along these lines, multiple large investigations have shown that RAAS blockade contributes to prevention of both cardiovascular and renal disease. We aim to highlight the known role of the activated RAAS and provide an updated description of the mechanisms by which activation of RAAS promotes and leads to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
Part of the book: Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System