Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by an arbovirus endemic to Africa and Asia. It was initially seen in the early 1950s at the boundary of Tanzania and Mozambique. Due to the ease with which its vectors propagate, the virus has spread to India, Europe, and recently it arrived in the Caribbean, eventually extending into North, Central, and South America. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most common clinical manifestations are abrupt fever, polyarthralgia, headache, maculopapular rash, myalgia, and nausea/vomiting. Severe joint pain and stiffness have been known to incapacitate some patients from a few days to several months after infection. The re-emergence of the CHIKV and its spread to new places around the globe has encouraged the development of new preventive, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This chapter will discuss the history of CHIKV and expanding geographic distribution.
Part of the book: Chikungunya Virus