Chikungunya is a zoonotic disease which is caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and transmitted by infected Aedes spp mosquito. In Indonesia, CHIKV is a re-emerging disease, which means that it is a disease that has gone for a long time, but then it spreads again and causes outbreaks frequently. CHIKV presence in Indonesia was first reported in 1979 in Bengkulu City causing substantial acute and chronic morbidity. After disappearing for 16 years, the CHIKV outbreak spreaded again in 24 regions throughout Indonesia from 2001 to 2003. In 2009 and 2010, CHIKV outbreaks hit western and central regions of Indonesia and increased from 3,000 cases per year to 83,000 and 52,000 cases per year. The burden of this disease is unclear due to insufficient monitoring and diagnosis. The spread and transmission of CHIKV in Indonesia is very high, due to travel, competent vectors, and the vulnerability of the population. In addition, the evolution of viruses, globalization and climate change has accelerated the spread of this virus. Effective antiviral treatment and vaccines do not yet exist, so early detection and appropriate management can help reducing the burden of this disease. Monitoring and risk assessment to reduce human-vector contact are also needed to reduce the impact of chikungunya.
Part of the book: Chikungunya Virus