Climate change is one of the main challenges facing many countries, particularly developing countries, because of its negative impact on their various ecosystems and their socio-economic development, which very often leads them down a slow descent into poverty. This is because climate change can manifest itself in different forms such as climate variability and extreme events (droughts, epidemics, floods, storms and hurricanes), which can affect biodiversity and cause many human and animal diseases and deaths. In fact, the evolution of ecosystems is dependent on climate and environmental change and appears to be closely associated with many emerging or re-emerging diseases. In general, the ecosystems considered to be most exposed to climate change are those located in and around the intertropical convergence zone in particular. They are believed to be closely linked to the occurrence of several emerging diseases, particularly vector-borne diseases. For years, the Republic of Haiti has been experiencing the adverse effects of these global changes with a marked disruption of its rainfall pattern and prolonged periods of drought as well as a pronounced increase in temperatures even in high altitude areas. Although there is evidence that climate change is increasing the frequency of vector-borne diseases and may contribute to increasing the virulence of their pathogens, there are very few studies conducted in Haiti on the relationship between climate change and vector-borne diseases. The purpose of this chapter is to define the interrelationships between climate change and vector-borne diseases in Haiti by identifying avenues of research to better understand the effects of climate change on public health and to make appropriate recommendations to decision-makers to ensure proper management.
Part of the book: Environmental Health
Microplastics (MP) refer to all plastic particles that are less than 5 mm in size. Over the past decades, several studies have highlighted the impact of microplastics (MP) on living organisms. In addition to being pollutants themselves, these synthetic polymers also act as vectors for the transport of various types of chemicals in natural ecosystems. MP has been ubiquitously detected in a wide range of shapes, polymers, sizes and concentrations in marine water, freshwater, agroecosystems, atmospheric, food and water environments. Drinking water, biota, and other remote places. According to the World Bank, over 80% of the world’s marine litter is plastic and the concentration of litter on Caribbean beaches is often high, with a high presence of single-use plastics and food containers. In its work, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests an in-depth assessment of microplastics present in the environment and their potential consequences on human health, following the publication of an analysis of the state of research on microplastics in drinking water. It also calls for reducing plastic pollution to protect the environment and reduce human exposure. In Haiti, the bay of Port-au-Prince is the natural receptacle of all the urban effluents generated by human activities in the Metropolitan Zone. This urban wastewater carries household waste, sludge from pit latrines and sewage, industrial wastewater which largely contributes to the pollution of the bay. Furthermore, 1,673,750 tonnes per year of household waste, including 93,730 tonnes of plastic waste, are not collected. What are the environmental dangers represented by the MP contained in those wastes for living organisms in exposed tropical ecosystems? The purpose of this paper is: (i) to do a bibliographical review of the physical and chemical properties, as well as the toxicological profile of MP, (ii) to identify the environmental hazards associated with MP contained in urban waste in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince.
Part of the book: Environmental Health
The Caribbean region faces a wide diversity of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) in animals and humans. But to date, these have been the subject of few studies, resulting in a relative lack of knowledge of their epidemiology, pathogenicity, and the best prevention and control methods. Ticks are hematophagous mites, which feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles. They are subdivided into two large families: the Ixodidae or hard ticks and the Argasidae or soft ticks. Each collection of blood by ticks from infected hosts can lead to their infection, which will contaminate other previously unharmed animals and contribute to the spread of tick-borne diseases caused mainly by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. It seems important to us to draw up a state of knowledge on ticks. Some long-known tick species like Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, and Amblyomma and diseases like Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis deserve to be better studied, and others are yet to be identified for further research. The study consists of a review of the various documents published on this theme by Haitian and foreign researchers. The data are analyzed to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of ticks and identify the pathogenic germs they harbor and the various pathologies they induce in the Caribbean and Haiti.
Part of the book: Arthropods