This chapter will introduce the clinician to the quickly expanding field of musculoskeletal-focused digital apps (MDA), with an eye towards helping the clinician select and recommend MDAs for optimal patient care. MDAs are increasingly being used for physical therapy and rehabilitation, telehealth, pain management, behavioral health, and remote patient monitoring. The COVID-19 pandemic has vastly accelerated the adoption of telehealth and digital health apps by patients and clinicians, and the digital health field will only continue to expand as developers increasingly harness artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) capabilities, coupled with precision medicine capabilities that integrate personal health data tracking and genomics insights. Here we begin with an overview of several types of MDA, before discussing the epidemiology of musculoskeletal conditions and injuries, clinical considerations in selecting a digital health solution, payor reimbursement for digital apps, and regulatory oversight of digital health apps.
Part of the book: Environmental Health