In the most recent the environmental provident and threatening conduct of arsenic has increased the consideration of the world due to its pollution and hazardous effects throughout the world. Arsenic contamination is serious issue throughout the world and is substantial risk factor in most of countries including China, U.S.A, India, Bangladesh, Mexico and Argentina. Several experimental models have been established to understand the diseases caused by arsenic exposure. However reproductive and developmental toxicity have been poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to discuss current landscapes and future horizons of arsenic toxicity in human and animals in relation to various toxicity routes including oral route involving food and water or through inhalation of agricultural pesticides. Addition of current evidence on the development of destiny and actions of arsenic toxicity in human and animal population and other species will lessen the uncertainties in the hazard assessment for arsenic. This effort would help to protect the public health against the toxic and carcinogenic effects associated with arsenic exposure.
Part of the book: Environmental Health
Arsenic has become a major toxicological concern due to its rising concentrations in aquatic bodies. It is added to the water either by natural sources including weathering of rocks, sediments, volcanic eruptions and aquifers, or by anthropogenic sources including herbicides, wood preservatives, metal smelting, drugs, pesticides, burning of coal, agriculture runoff and petroleum refining processes among others. The untreated and uncontrolled discharge of arsenic by industries into the natural water bodies poses serious threat to aquatic fauna by deteriorating water quality and making it unsuitable for fishes. Fish is an important bioindicator of aquatic bodies and excessive arsenic concentration causes its bioaccumulation in fish organs and muscles. This deposited arsenic in the fish imposes serious damage to physiology, biochemical disorders such as poisoning of gills, livers, decrease fertility, tissue damage, lesions, and cell death. It also enters in the cell and produces reactive oxygen species which increases the level of stress which further concentrates the oxidative enzymes and cortisol levels in fish. The uncontrolled discharge of arsenic and its devastating impact on fish diversity is a major concern for aquaculture progress and economic stability. This, along with its other implications is the scope of this chapter.
Part of the book: Arsenic in the Environment