Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of intra-mammary infections in dairy animals with potential virulence of surface components, toxins, and extracellular enzymes. About 74% quarter prevalence of S. aureus in bovine udder with overall prevalence exceeding 61% in dairy animals. About 17 different serotypes of dairy originated S. aureus have been reported with 24 virulence coding genes for leukocidins (lukED/lukM), pyrogenic toxin super antigen (PTSAg), haemolysins (hla-hlg), toxic-shock syndrome toxin (tst), enterotoxins (sea-seo, seu), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb), and genes for methicillin (mecA) and penicillin (blaZ) resistance. Attainment of refuge inside the macrophages and neutrophils is a major cause of S. aureus mastitis persistence. Mammary prebiotics and probiotics are recently being used as alternatives to antibiotic for the prevention of mastitis. Literature showed anti- staphylococcus vaccines with different results depending upon types of immunization, route of administration and adjuvant used. Studies has shown that herd specific as well as commercial S. aureus vaccines reduce new infections in dairy animals. Experiments are still in progress for the use of vaccines against S. aureus mastitis with optimal efficacy and reliability. Perhaps, there might be bright future because of highly satisfactory trial results of mastitis vaccines in the lab animals.
Part of the book: Insights Into Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus