Milk composition and production varies from species to species, reflecting its diversified benefits on health. Lipids from caprine and ovine milk are anti-obesity and anti-atherogenic while prebiotic in the case of caprine. Higher contents of selenium from caprine and iron from camel milk play a role in immune system and oxygen transport system, respectively, whereas enriched vitamins like riboflavin, folic acid, B6, vitamin A of bovine, and foliate of cattle are effective in the synthesis of hemoglobin, and high niacin content of caprine is anti-cancerous. Camel milk is found to have characteristics of anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, and autoimmune therapeutic. Various processing techniques like pasteurization, skim milk powder processing, and ultra-high temperature processing are necessary for safe provision of milk to meet consumers’ demand. Change in flavor, loss of micronutrients, biofilm production, and spore-forming bacteria are prominent challenges during processing. Antimicrobial resistance and disease conditions are exaggerating factors of milk deterioration with respect to quality and quantity. Preclinical trials like somatic cell count, California mastitis test, proteomic analysis, Raman spectroscopy-based analysis, and X-ray fluorescence analysis are helpful in avoiding the spread of disease and controlling of economic losses. This chapter focuses differential functions of bioactive of milk, issues arising during processing techniques, and preclinical studies of milk for safer production and consumption of milk.
Part of the book: Milk Production, Processing and Marketing
Leptospirosis is a communicable disease at farms that results in abortion and pathological changes in animals and human respectively. Disease is majorly spreading through indirect contact with contaminated urine material. The causative agent belongs to Leptospira genus having 21 species, 25 serogroups, and 250 serovars. The prevalence noted at world level is counted to be 41.39% with 30.11% in Asia, 25.62% in Africa, and 46.42% in South Africa. The virulence is attributed to Loa22 protein which is the first protein identified as essential virulence factor. Pathogenesis involves vasculitis following which are direct cytotoxicity and immunological injury resulting in renal failure. Direct examination, PCR, isothermal methods, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are diagnostic approaches for leptospirosis. The MAT is a gold standard test for leptospirosis identification. Doxycycline and azithromycin were used as drugs against leptospirosis in mild and severe cases of leptospirosis. Further studies are needed regarding identification, treatment, and effective vaccination.
Part of the book: Bacterial Cattle Diseases
Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of intra-mammary infections in dairy animals with potential virulence of surface components, toxins, and extracellular enzymes. About 74% quarter prevalence of S. aureus in bovine udder with overall prevalence exceeding 61% in dairy animals. About 17 different serotypes of dairy originated S. aureus have been reported with 24 virulence coding genes for leukocidins (lukED/lukM), pyrogenic toxin super antigen (PTSAg), haemolysins (hla-hlg), toxic-shock syndrome toxin (tst), enterotoxins (sea-seo, seu), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb), and genes for methicillin (mecA) and penicillin (blaZ) resistance. Attainment of refuge inside the macrophages and neutrophils is a major cause of S. aureus mastitis persistence. Mammary prebiotics and probiotics are recently being used as alternatives to antibiotic for the prevention of mastitis. Literature showed anti- staphylococcus vaccines with different results depending upon types of immunization, route of administration and adjuvant used. Studies has shown that herd specific as well as commercial S. aureus vaccines reduce new infections in dairy animals. Experiments are still in progress for the use of vaccines against S. aureus mastitis with optimal efficacy and reliability. Perhaps, there might be bright future because of highly satisfactory trial results of mastitis vaccines in the lab animals.
Part of the book: Insights Into Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
Mastitis in dairy animals is the primary concern of dairy farmers, which is the most common disease that causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry. The economic losses due to mastitis are from a reduction in milk yield, condemnation of milk with antibiotic residues, veterinary treatment costs, and death. In addition, some mastitis pathogens also cause serious human diseases associated with the contamination of milk or milk products with bacteria or their toxins. Bovine mastitis is mainly caused by a wide range of environmental and contagious bacterial mastitis pathogens. Contagious pathogens are those whose main reservoir is the infected udder. Contagious pathogens mainly spread among animals during milking process whereas environmental pathogens spread from environment to udder at any time. The source of the environmental pathogens is the surrounding environment of an animal. The major contagious pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. and the minor contagious pathogens include Corynebacterium bovis and others. Major environmental pathogens include coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp.), environmental streptococci (Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis). This chapter covers detailed review of published data on contagious and environmental pathogens responsible for bovine mastitis.
Part of the book: Mastitis in Dairy Cattle, Sheep and Goats