Dairy Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology, Drug Susceptibilities, Drug Modulation, and Preventive Measures
By Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi and Ali
Staphylococcus aureus is an emerging pathogen from dairy animals’ mammary glands. Among various risk factors associated with this pathogen are unhygienic milking procedures, improper preventive techniques, and lack of germicidal teat dipping before and after milking. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, coagulase positive S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, and biofilm-producing S. aureus are common strains of S. aureus being isolated from dairy milk these days. They have huge economic and public health concerns. Trials of antibiotic susceptibility proposed variable responses, while drug modulation and drug synergistic proved to be hope for its treatment. Some of the plant derivative, phages, and nanoparticles are non-antibiotic sources to treat S. aureus. Various attempts to treat S. aureus at the world level have been carried out but require more researches to be undertaken in order to prevent it. The chapter concludes that S. aureus from dairy needs equal attention as is given to S. aureus from the human origin, and researches are required to probe solutions.
Part of the book: Staphylococcus Aureus
Reconnoitering Milk Constituents of Different Species, Probing and Soliciting Factors to Its Soundness
By Amjad Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Aftab Anjum, Muhammad Kulyar, Muhammad Shoaib and Shahid Farooqi
Milk composition and production varies from species to species, reflecting its diversified benefits on health. Lipids from caprine and ovine milk are anti-obesity and anti-atherogenic while prebiotic in the case of caprine. Higher contents of selenium from caprine and iron from camel milk play a role in immune system and oxygen transport system, respectively, whereas enriched vitamins like riboflavin, folic acid, B6, vitamin A of bovine, and foliate of cattle are effective in the synthesis of hemoglobin, and high niacin content of caprine is anti-cancerous. Camel milk is found to have characteristics of anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, and autoimmune therapeutic. Various processing techniques like pasteurization, skim milk powder processing, and ultra-high temperature processing are necessary for safe provision of milk to meet consumers’ demand. Change in flavor, loss of micronutrients, biofilm production, and spore-forming bacteria are prominent challenges during processing. Antimicrobial resistance and disease conditions are exaggerating factors of milk deterioration with respect to quality and quantity. Preclinical trials like somatic cell count, California mastitis test, proteomic analysis, Raman spectroscopy-based analysis, and X-ray fluorescence analysis are helpful in avoiding the spread of disease and controlling of economic losses. This chapter focuses differential functions of bioactive of milk, issues arising during processing techniques, and preclinical studies of milk for safer production and consumption of milk.
Part of the book: Milk Production, Processing and Marketing
Leptospirosis: Rising Nuisance for Cattle and Threat to Public Health
By Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar and Khadija Yasmeen
Leptospirosis is a communicable disease at farms that results in abortion and pathological changes in animals and human respectively. Disease is majorly spreading through indirect contact with contaminated urine material. The causative agent belongs to Leptospira genus having 21 species, 25 serogroups, and 250 serovars. The prevalence noted at world level is counted to be 41.39% with 30.11% in Asia, 25.62% in Africa, and 46.42% in South Africa. The virulence is attributed to Loa22 protein which is the first protein identified as essential virulence factor. Pathogenesis involves vasculitis following which are direct cytotoxicity and immunological injury resulting in renal failure. Direct examination, PCR, isothermal methods, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are diagnostic approaches for leptospirosis. The MAT is a gold standard test for leptospirosis identification. Doxycycline and azithromycin were used as drugs against leptospirosis in mild and severe cases of leptospirosis. Further studies are needed regarding identification, treatment, and effective vaccination.
Part of the book: Bacterial Cattle Diseases
Staphylococcus aureus and Dairy Udder
By Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Muzammil, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Tean Zaheer, Rais Ahmed, Iqra Sarwar, Yasir Razzaq Khan and Muhammad Aamir Naseer
Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of intra-mammary infections in dairy animals with potential virulence of surface components, toxins, and extracellular enzymes. About 74% quarter prevalence of S. aureus in bovine udder with overall prevalence exceeding 61% in dairy animals. About 17 different serotypes of dairy originated S. aureus have been reported with 24 virulence coding genes for leukocidins (lukED/lukM), pyrogenic toxin super antigen (PTSAg), haemolysins (hla-hlg), toxic-shock syndrome toxin (tst), enterotoxins (sea-seo, seu), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb), and genes for methicillin (mecA) and penicillin (blaZ) resistance. Attainment of refuge inside the macrophages and neutrophils is a major cause of S. aureus mastitis persistence. Mammary prebiotics and probiotics are recently being used as alternatives to antibiotic for the prevention of mastitis. Literature showed anti- staphylococcus vaccines with different results depending upon types of immunization, route of administration and adjuvant used. Studies has shown that herd specific as well as commercial S. aureus vaccines reduce new infections in dairy animals. Experiments are still in progress for the use of vaccines against S. aureus mastitis with optimal efficacy and reliability. Perhaps, there might be bright future because of highly satisfactory trial results of mastitis vaccines in the lab animals.
Part of the book: Insights Into Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
Etiology of Bovine Mastitis
By Muhammad Shoaib, Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Aamir Naseer, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Wanxia PU, Qaisar Tanveer, Iqra Muzammil, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Muhammad Salman Younas and Muhammad Hammad
Mastitis in dairy animals is the primary concern of dairy farmers, which is the most common disease that causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry. The economic losses due to mastitis are from a reduction in milk yield, condemnation of milk with antibiotic residues, veterinary treatment costs, and death. In addition, some mastitis pathogens also cause serious human diseases associated with the contamination of milk or milk products with bacteria or their toxins. Bovine mastitis is mainly caused by a wide range of environmental and contagious bacterial mastitis pathogens. Contagious pathogens are those whose main reservoir is the infected udder. Contagious pathogens mainly spread among animals during milking process whereas environmental pathogens spread from environment to udder at any time. The source of the environmental pathogens is the surrounding environment of an animal. The major contagious pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. and the minor contagious pathogens include Corynebacterium bovis and others. Major environmental pathogens include coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp.), environmental streptococci (Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis). This chapter covers detailed review of published data on contagious and environmental pathogens responsible for bovine mastitis.
Part of the book: Mastitis in Dairy Cattle, Sheep and Goats
Staphylococcus aureus and the Veterinary Medicine View all chapters
By Muhammad Farhab, Muhammad Tahir Aleem, Shakseema Shaukat, Ayesha Qadry, Muhammad Zeeshan Ul Haq, Fateh Ullah, Muhammad Jawad and Amjad Islam Aqib
Staphylococcus aureus has vital importance in veterinary medicine. Within the ruminants, it is one of the major causes of mastitis, the problem that was and is, with no definite solution to date. Along with that, it also affects the health of animals, pets, and poultry in several ways as the tissue tropism for this organism in poultry is the bones and the joints. This review is focused on habitat, species differentiation, differential biochemical tests, pathogenesis, clinical infections, economic importance, public health significance, immune response, the regulation of virulence in the staphylococci, and cytokines response against S. aureus.
Part of the book: Insights Into Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus