The performance of printed wideband antennas has to be optimized both in frequency and time domains, to qualify for UWB applications. This is especially true in multi-resonant antenna topologies where the excitation of different modes can change phase centers and radiation patterns with frequency. The study presented in this chapter intends to demonstrate the simulation and experimental design for the time domain characterization of UWB antennas. Modeling the antenna as a linear time-invariant system with transfer function and impulse response, distortion caused to a nanosecond pulse is analyzed. Two planar monopole antenna designs are considered for the comparative study: the SQMA and RMA. SQMA is a traditional CPW-fed monopole design with ground modifications for ultra wide-bandwidth. RMA is a rectangular CPW-fed monopole with an impedance transformer arrangement at the antenna feed. RMA maintains constant impedance over the entire UWB and contributes towards maintaining uniformity in the radiation patterns over the entire frequency band by its design. Transfer function measurements are performed for both the azimuthal and elevation planes and the impulse responses are deduced by performing IFFT. Parameters such as FWHM and ringing are computed from the impulse response for the performance comparison. To evaluate the influence of the antenna geometry on a transmitted/received pulse, the impulse responses are convoluted with a standard UWB pulse. The time-domain distortion for the designs is then compared by computing the Fidelity parameter.
Part of the book: Innovations in Ultra-Wideband Technologies