This chapter presents the implementation of stable, accurate, and wideband second-order microwave integrators (SOMIs). These SOMI designs are obtained by the use of various cascading combinations of transmission line sections and shunt stubs. In order to obtain the optimal values of the characteristic impedances of these line elements, the particle swarm optimization (PSO), cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are used to approximate the magnitude response of the ideal second-order integrator (SOI). Based on magnitude response, absolute magnitude error, phase response, convergence rate, pole-zero plot, and improvement graph, the performance measure criteria for the proposed SOMIs are performed. The results of the simulation and statistical analysis reveal that GSA exceeds the PSO and CSA in order to approximate the ideal SOI in all state-of-the-art eligible for wide-band microwave integrator. The designed SOMI is compact and suitable for applications covering ultra-wideband (UWB). The designed SOMI structure is also simulated on Advanced Design Software (ADS) in the form of a microstrip line on a dielectric constant 2.2 RT/Duroid substrate with a height of 0.762 mm. In the 3–15 GHz frequency range, the simulated magnitude result agrees well with the ideal one.
Part of the book: Innovations in Ultra-Wideband Technologies