Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-Positive bacteria that are responsible to cause skin infections and also shows toxic shock syndrome. Several antibiotics were given against the S. aureus infections but eventually, the prevalence of multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus started emerging. Since then Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA)were very common which causes nosocomial infections. Microorganisms for the need of the survival undergoes mutational changes either in their chromosomal DNA/RNA which confers the resistance. One of the famous examples is the resistance against methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus. The evolution of S. aureus is successful in developing multiple resistant strains. Plasmids are capable of carrying the resistant genes and also several toxic genes. In a recent study, it has been observed that drug resistance genes are located in the R plasmids and they are also responsible in conferring multi drug resistance and induce less utilization of multiple antimicrobial therapy. MRSA was not only resistant to methicillin, studies proved MRSA strains were resistant to macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol. Resistance to vancomycin was very evidently observed, and its transfer among the population and rising of resistant strains was becoming a major threat globally. The resistance of all these antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic microorganisms are taking a rise in some patients due to prolong use of the antimicrobial agents by these patients. The multi drug resistance has enhanced the mortality and morbidity rate which referred to the infecting agents as the “Super Bugs”. Survival of the microorganisms has increased due to the gradual development of extensive resistance against varied antimicrobial drugs. Possible treatments with combinations are found to be the only hope for infections against S. aureus. Few drugs are in development such as Dalbavancin, Oritavancin, Tigecycline. These are the possible treatments upon which the work is going on to reduce the resistance against the invasive MRSA. This chapter highlights the profiles of Staphylococcus aureus and the resistance patterns along with transmission and the role of the plasmid in transmitting the resistance.
Part of the book: Insights Into Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
Osteoporosis, a chronic bone disease, alters both the microstructure and macrostructure of bones, endangering bone strength and increasing the susceptibility to fragility fractures. Its consequences on the aging population raise important sociological, healthcare, and economic issues. The relationship between the immune system and osteoporosis can be understood by carefully examining a wide range of immune cells, related cytokines, and their functions. Long-term inflammation, immune cell production of RANKL, and autoimmune illnesses like systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis all affect bone loss. An overview of the cycle of bone remodeling and the pathophysiology of osteoporosis are covered in this chapter. Important features of osteoporosis for diagnostic purposes are covered, including the formation and resorption markers, potential immunological markers for osteoporosis diagnosis, and new bone metabolic biomarkers. This chapter focuses solely on the roles of innate and adaptive immune cells. It also highlights novel therapeutic strategies that target specific immune pathways and show promise in the management of these challenging bone disorders. As research advances, these findings may pave the way for more specialized and efficient treatments, ultimately enhancing the quality of life for osteoporosis patients.
Part of the book: Osteoporosis