Clear cell renal cancers (ccRCC) are characterized by inactivation of the VHL (von Hippel–Lindau) tumor suppressor. Work leading to the 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has shown that this is central to cellular oxygen-sensing, orchestrated by the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) transcription factors. These regulate hundreds of genes that underpin many hallmarks of cancer, including angiogenesis, cellular energetics, cell proliferation, resisting cell death, and avoiding immune destruction. However, HIF also promotes processes that are detrimental to cancer cells. Therefore, the overall consequence of HIF pathway activation is a balance of these influences. We explore how variations in the HIF pathway during tumorigenesis alter this balance to promote ccRCC formation.
Part of the book: Biomarkers and Bioanalysis Overview