P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an active member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) protein subfamily which effluxes a wide range of therapeutic drugs out of the cells commonly known as multidrug resistance. But its protective action towards the normal cells and efflux of the toxic and foreign substances is remarkable. Hence the efflux of the P-gp is a crucial step to overcome for the success of the therapy and in the drug discovery process. Modification of the action of the P-gp through various inducers, inhibitors or the genetic polymorphism is the commonly used methods. When it comes to the inhibitor part the natural inhibitors use is more safe and economical as compared to the synthetic ones. Here we review at the mechanism of action and the pharmacokinetic profile of P-gp, how the P-gp engaged in the Multidrug resistance, the strategy to overcome from its action by using natural inhibitors and formulation perspectives.
Part of the book: Biomarkers and Bioanalysis Overview
Microemulsions are lipid based drug delivery system consisting of oil, water, surfactant and often a co-surfactant. They are prepared in order to deliver the drug in an effective manner so as to obtain the desired therapeutic activity. Compared to other conventional therapy, they can deliver the drug in an efficient manner because of their characteristics like reduced particles size, lipid based drug delivery system, thermodynamic stability and economical scale up. Anti-cancer drugs can be easily incorporated into microemulsion so as to target the cancer cells. This helps in increasing the solubility, permeability and absorption of the poorly soluble and poorly permeable drugs, thereby helping in enhancing the bioavailability of the drug. In this chapter, we are also focusing on the herbal based formulations that will be helpful in effectively fighting against cancer cells with less or no side effects. A light has also been shed on the advantages and disadvantages of the microemulsions that will be helpful in considering them as an effective model to conquer cancer and promote the same in the upcoming years.
Part of the book: Surfactants and Detergents