Modified optical fiber sensors received increasing attention because of their superior properties over electrical sensors. These properties include their immunity towards electromagnetic interference and the ability to be deployed in corrosive and volatile environment. Several optical fiber platforms have been developed for chemical sensing applications based on modifying optical fiber cladding layer such as etched, tapered, D-shaped and etched-tapered. The modifications purpose is to extend the evanescent wave propagating out of the core physical dimensions. Thus, evanescent wave interaction with analyte is enhanced. Modified optical transducing platforms are integrated in gas sensing applications, such as ammonia. Modified optical fiber sensors coated with nanostructured thin films have been developed and gained popularity as practical devices towards gases with low concentrations. The development and characterization of the modified SMF sensing platforms including etched, tapered and etched-tapered platforms against ammonia will be presented in this chapter. These platforms were coated with PANI nanostructured thin film. The 50 μm etched-tapered SMF coated with PANI produced response, recovery times, and sensitivity of 58 s, 475 s, and 231.5%, respectively, in the C-band range. The limit of detection of the modified fiber sensor was 25 ppm. The developed sensors exhibit good repeatability, reversibility, and selectivity.
Part of the book: Application of Optical Fiber in Engineering