Lipoproteins are specialized particles involved in the transport and distribution of hydrophobic lipids, as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the body. The lipoproteins exhibit a basic spherical shape as complexes of lipids and proteins, and these latter are known as apolipoproteins. Initially, the proteins associated with lipoproteins were recognized as integral or peripheral proteins that only maintain the dynamics and metabolism of lipoproteins. However, there exist many studies on different lipoproteins evidencing that the quantity and type of apolipoproteins and lipoprotein-associated proteins are diverse and could be associated with different lipoprotein function outcomes. Here, we summarized recent processes in the determination of apolipoproteins and lipoprotein-associated proteins profiles through a proteomic approach, analyzing the major methods available and are used to achieve this. We also discuss the relevance of these lipoproteomic analyses on the human disease outcomes.
Part of the book: Drug Design
Over the past two decades, several research groups have focused on the functioning of microRNAs (miRNAs), because many of them function as positive or negative endogenous regulators of processes that alter during the development of cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer in men. New biomarkers are needed to support the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Although it is necessary to deepen the research on this molecule to explore its potential utility in the diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis of cancer, our results support a role of miR-107 in the signaling cascades that allow cancer progression, and as shown here, in the progression of Prostate Cancer (PCa). These findings strongly suggest that miR-107 may be a potential circulating biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
Part of the book: Male Reproductive Anatomy
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen bacterium capable of using hemoglobin (Hb) and haem as a single iron source but not in presence of lactoferrin. This bacterium has developed a mechanism through the expression of several membrane proteins that bind to iron sources, between them a lipoprotein of 37 kDa called Spbhp-37 (Streptococcus pneumoniae haem-binding protein) involved in iron acquisition. The Spbhp-37 role is to maintain the viability of S. pneumoniae in presence of Hb or haem. This mechanism is relevant during the invasion of S. pneumoniae to human tissue for the acquisition of iron from hemoglobin or haem as an iron source.
Part of the book: Pneumonia