Our work aims to identify the main risks existing in the agroecosystems of southern Italy, providing, at the same time, information about innovative and fast methodologies. The goal is to understand the magnitude of the phenomena that could compromise them if no action is taken for water and soil matrices. Regarding the former we will consider plant protection product residues in water bodies and the importance of agroecosystems as source of microplastic pollution and their role as a vector of pollutants; regarding the latter, we will present a rapid and low-cost methodology to detect asbestos-containing materials and significantly transformed areas. Furthermore, indications are provided on how to implement effective monitoring plans in order to certainly identify the problem affecting one or more matrices and provide practical instructions to the administrators to implement the appropriate remediation strategies.
Part of the book: Agroecosystems
Artificial intelligence applications play a crucial role in improving environmental quality from all points of view. Digital technologies have revolutionized our way of life as they are permeated to a capillary level in our daily life. On the other hand, the data produced every second cannot be managed by a human mind due to a certain physical and temporal impossibility, so artificial intelligence, algorithms written by men to perform human reasoning, they can accomplish this arduous task. In this chapter we will address the potential of artificial intelligence to process important amounts of data and analyze existing relationships also through a focus on the conservation capacity of one of the most precious resources: water.
Part of the book: IoT Applications Computing
Temporary ponds represent a specific type of ecosystem extensively widespread worldwide. They are better known as copular pools, ephemeral waters, karst sinkholes, seasonal wetlands, and vernal pools. Among these, Mediterranean Temporary Ponds (MTPs) represent a priority habitat according to the Natura 2000 network of the European Union. Their main characteristic is represented by their depth of only a few centimeters and lack of communication with permanent water bodies. MTPs habitats are vulnerable to human activities, especially agriculture, and they are considered priority habitats to safeguard. Threats affecting this habitat are various and many and depend on specific site conditions, including intensive agriculture, tree planting, abandonment of traditional land use, and excessive grazing. In the present manuscript, we report the results of monitoring activity of some of these sites in Southern Italy aimed at understanding the ecological status of these ephemeral ecosystems with a specially developed methodology based on data integration.
Part of the book: Limnology