The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere that is a threat to GNSS and satellite telecommunication systems. In this chapter, we will dive into the GNSS real-time monitoring of ionospheric irregularities and TEC perturbations, with a focus on the detection of small- and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) for natural hazard applications. We will describe the Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation (VARION) algorithm, which is capable of estimating TEC variations in real time, and it was used to detect tsunami-induced TIDs. In particular, the analytical and physical implications of applying the VARION algorithm both to GNSS dual-frequency MEO (medium Earth orbit) and GEO (geostationary orbit) satellites will be provided, thus highlighting its relevance for natural hazard early warning systems and real-time monitoring of ionospheric irregularities.
Part of the book: Satellites Missions and Technologies for Geosciences