The wavelength of the radio-wave satellite signal is of the order of the minimal small-scale ionospheric irregularities (i.e., a few centimeters). As the satellite signal passes through the ionosphere, its interaction with the ionospheric irregularity structures causes refraction, reflection, and polarization in the satellite signal. Ionospheric irregularities degrade the trans-ionospheric radio-wave signal quality, between the satellite and the receivers, due to scintillation. The physics-based model often fails to produce global morphology during the extreme solar events, whereas empirical models based on the ionospheric scintillation data demonstrate better quality to forecast the scintillation effects during extreme solar event. It is really tricky to make a scintillation model that is sensitive to low and high solar activities as well as extreme solar events simultaneously. In the presented book chapter, we will discuss/review the needs and tricks of modeling ionospheric scintillation during extreme solar events as well as all weather and latitudinal cases. There are several aspects that influence the scintillation occurrence, its strength, and global distribution. The latitudinal dependence, local weather, solar/geomagnetic activity conditions, and local times are the widely accepted factors that control and influence ionospheric scintillation most. This book chapter discusses all these aspects and also suggests the ways to cast aside those factors that led to the wrong measure of scintillation indices.
Part of the book: Satellites Missions and Technologies for Geosciences