We present theoretical developments expressing the physical characteristics of a single photon in conformity with the experimental evidence. The quantization of the electromagnetic field vector potential amplitude is enhanced to a free of cavity photon state. Coupling the Schrödinger equation with the relativistic massless particle Hamiltonian to a symmetrical vector potential relation, we establish the vector potential - energy equation for the photon expressing the simultaneous wave-particle nature of a single photon, an intrinsic physical property. It is shown that the vector potential can be naturally considered as a real wave function for the photon entailing a coherent localization probability. We deduce directly the electric and magnetic field amplitudes of the cavity-free single photon, which are revealed to be proportional to the square of the angular frequency. The zero-energy electromagnetic field ground state (EFGS), a quantum vacuum real component, issues naturally from Maxwell’s equations and the vector potential quantization procedure. The relation of the quantized amplitude of the photon vector potential to the electron-positron charge results directly showing the physical relationship between photons and electrons-positrons that might be at the origin of their mutual transformations. It becomes obvious that photons, as well as electrons-positrons, are issued from the same quantum vacuum field.
Part of the book: Single Photon Manipulation
The electromagnetic field ground state, a zero-energy vacuum component that issues naturally from Maxwell’s theory and from the vector potential quantization at a single-photon level, overcomes the vacuum energy singularity in quantum electrodynamics which leads inevitably to the well-known “vacuum catastrophe” in cosmology. Photons/electromagnetic waves are oscillations of this vacuum field which is composed of a real electric potential permeating all of space. The Hawking-Unruh temperature for a particle accelerated in vacuum is readily obtained from the interaction with the electromagnetic field ground state. The elementary charge and the electron and proton mass are expressed precisely through the electromagnetic field ground state quantized amplitude entailing that photons, leptons/antileptons, and probably baryons/antibaryons originate from the same vacuum field. Fluctuations of the electromagnetic field ground state contribute to the cosmic electromagnetic background and may be at the origin of the dark energy which is considered to be responsible for the observed cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, the gravitational constant is also expressed through the electromagnetic field ground state quantized amplitude revealing the electromagnetic nature of gravity. The overall developments yield that the electromagnetic field ground state plays a primary role in gravitation and cosmology opening new perspectives for further investigations.
Part of the book: Cosmology 2020