The molecular responses to counteract diseases, including insulting conditions such as injury and pathogen infection, involve coordinated modulation of gene expression programs. The association of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) with several progressive disorders has focused the research on its induced conformational behavior as critical for uncovering the “secrets” for progression of α-synucleinopathies. Cholesterol is one of the lipid components crucial for regular proliferation of the nervous tissue. Its interaction with α-Syn may offer other insights to α-Syn normal expression. Discovering that the molecular regulatory mechanisms responsible for prevention of α-Syn aggregation may be manifested through microRNA (miRNA) regulated gene expression is also crucial for widening the perception of neuropathology. The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane is able to regulate various cellular and tissue functions, with key role as cholesterol transporter for neurosteroid synthesis. TSPO up-regulation, has been connected to several diseases, including cancer, neuronal damage, and inflammation. Connection may also be established between TSPO expression and fatty acid oxidation, thus unveiling new possibilities in the research of α-Syn overexpression. However, expression of TSPO in the neuroinflammatory environment is probably the best starting point for targeting TSPO as a suitable therapeutic target.
Part of the book: Synucleins