Diarrhea is a common gastrointestinal problem characterized by loose watery stool and mild to severe dehydration. Annually, about 1.7–5 billion new cases of diarrhea were reported. In developing countries, it is more common, where young kids have diarrhea approximately three times/year. In 2013, 1.26 million deaths occurred due to diarrhea, whereas in 1990, the figure was slightly higher (2.58 million). In 2012, diarrhea was the second most common reason of death (11%, n = 0.76 million) in children less than 5 years. Although various synthetic drugs are being prescribed as standard therapy for diarrhea, they have side effects. It is possible to prescribe the herbal medicine for diarrhea, which is safe and effective. In this study, medicinal plants discussed are proven to be scientifically active in diarrheal diseases. This study reviews about current medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhea. The use of medicinal plants for diarrhea results in improvement of the symptom. Moreover, studies on large scale are needed to characterize the beneficial role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhea.
Part of the book: Perspective of Recent Advances in Acute Diarrhea
Phenylalanine, an amino acid, is a “building block” of protein. Phenylalanine is a component of food sources and also derived through supplementation. In current treatment, phenylalanine is prescribed as anti-depressant agent. The present study reviewed the possible antidepressant potential of phenylalanine. We reviewed data using the major databases, namely, Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, and PubMed. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the role of phenylalanine in depressive disorders. Phenylalanine possesses anti-depressant potential. Significant anti-depressant activities have been studied both in-vitro and in-vivo models. Based on current data, phenylalanine could be recommended as a potential candidate for clinical anti-depressant trials. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency results in intolerance to the dietetic consumption of the phenylalanine and a variety of syndromes such as deep and permanent logical disability, impaired cognitive development.
Part of the book: Synucleins