Atrial fibrillation (AF), which causes severe health problems, is a multi-factor disorder and is increasing day by day. AF is known to be one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias in clinical practice. AF can also be described as a cardiac dysrhythmia that causes severe cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AF is known as an independent risk factor for death and it occurs a significant risk of morbidity due to stroke. There are many diseases that contribute to the development of AF. Diseases such as aging, heart failure, heart valve disorders, myocardial infarction, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are important factors in the development of structural AF. It is a known fact that AF prevalence increases with age. The mechanism underlying of AF is not fully understood, but genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. There have been many studies aimed at investigating the genetic basis of AF, especially in recent years. In these studies, many mutations and variants have emerged which are identified as genetic risk factors in the development of AF. Identification of gene polymorphisms that play a role in the development of AF will be an important guide in the development of new therapies for the treatment of this condition.
Part of the book: Cardiac Arrhythmias
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide containing 37 amino acids. CGRP is a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, which has protective mechanisms in physiological and pathological conditions. When released, CGRP is a peptide that is active in the cerebral circulation and interacts with the sympathetic nervous system. CGRP is very important in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, CGRP, which is also associated with pain processes, has an important role in inflammation. Calcitonin-associated polypeptide alpha (CALCA), one of the isoforms of CGRP, functions through the wide CGRP receptors. Polymorphisms occurring in the CALCA gene are associated with diseases such as ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease, ovarian cancer, bone mineral density, migraine, schizophrenia, manic depression, and essential hypertension. In this section, the information was given about CALCA gene, which is one of its isoforms of CGRP. In addition, CALCA gene polymorphisms and diseases associated with these gene polymorphisms have also been addressed.
Part of the book: Polypeptide
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the motor system and occurring in the central nervous system. One of the symptoms of PD is accumulation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. The alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene is part of the protein complex called Lewy body. The SNCA gene encoding a presynaptic protein product is thought to play a role in PD-related important pathways. It is suggested that there is a relationship between the risk of PD development and SNCA levels, and it is suggested that SNCA level is an important marker in PD diagnosis. Various polymorphisms have been identified in the 5′ and/or 3′ UTR regions of the SNCA gene, and as a result of these polymorphisms, changes occur in the binding of transcription factors. The identification of the roles of SNCA gene polymorphisms in PD development may enable the development of new methods for the treatment of PD.
Part of the book: Synucleins
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex heart disease with various physiopathological, morphological, functional, and clinical features. In this disease, HCM is known to be an autosomal genetic disease in more than half of the cases. Mutations in sarcomeric genes are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Modifying genes and environmental factors also together affect the phenotypic expression and severity of HCM. The phenotypic expression of HCM is determined by causal sarcomeric gene mutations and the regulatory genetic basis of genes. HCM, a multi-factorial disease, involves the effects of many environmental gene modifiers and the sarcomeric/cytoskeletal genes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring in the human genome differ in terms of susceptibility to disease in various populations. Therefore, the determination of genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of HCM disease is very important for the diagnosis of the disease.
Part of the book: Practical Applications of Electrocardiogram