Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is one of the congenital muscular dystrophies, showing central nervous system (CNS) and ocular lesions, in addition to muscular dystrophy. It is included in α-dystroglycanopathy, an entity of muscular dystrophies caused by reduced glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Studies of ocular lesions are not so many, compared with those of the muscle and CNS. Clinical ocular manifestations are myopia, strabismus, retinal detachment, and so on. Since the retina has a structure partly resembling the cerebral cortex, pathological findings similar to those found in the brain have been reported. The major observation considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal lesions is abnormalities in the internal limiting membrane formed by Müller cells, which is corresponding to the glia limitans formed by astrocytes in the brain. Fukutin, responsible for FCMD, and α-DG are expressed in Müller cells. Moreover, fukutin may be involved in synaptic functions of retinal neurons through the glycosylation of α-DG. In this chapter, ocular lesions of fetal and child FCMD patients are presented, especially focusing on pathological findings of the retina, and functions of fukutin are discussed.
Part of the book: Muscular Dystrophies