Solar cells and photovoltaic modules are energy conversion components that produce electricity when exposed to light. The originality of photovoltaic energy as we understand it here is to directly transform light into electricity. Thin-film silicon in particular is better at low and diffuse illuminations and decreases less than the crystalline when the temperature increases while reducing the amount of material and manufacturing costs. However, the quality of the material and the efficiency of the conversion limit their use on a large scale. If the light absorption of the ultra-thin layers of the active material could be improved, this would lead to low recombination currents, higher open-circuit voltages and higher conversion efficiency. PV systems often communicate with utilities, aggregators and other grid operators over the public Internet, so the power system attack surface has significantly expanded. Solar energy systems are equipped with a range of grid-support functions, which—if controlled or programmed improperly—present a risk of power system disturbances.
Part of the book: Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules