People are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from many sources, including natural radioactive substances that are produced in the atmosphere and on Earth, in addition to radionuclides manufactured for various applications. Exposures vary among different places depending on many parameters. There are regions with considerably high natural background radiation while most places classified as low to medium levels. This noticeable interest pronounced worldwide is radioactivity monitoring and wide surveys by many countries. This is useful for the assessment of public as well as creating baseline if changes in the levels due to activities and practices take place. Good management of protecting the environment is to establish baseline data of high quality with efficient measurements. Natural radioactivity monitoring in view of radiation and environmental protection is presented in this chapter. It will shed the light on rapid methods describing the measurement of radionuclides and assessment of exposure to human. It presents a summary of methods of radiation dose calculations that individual may be exposed with some numerical examples. The chapter also presents methods for predicting the spatial distribution of radiological quantities using geographical information system. Environmental measurements may be costly and time-consuming practices; hence, thoughts to reduce time force itself in this chapter.
Part of the book: Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation