Among the numerous infectious diseases, malaria remains a major health challenge. Despite the various approaches adopted for the vector control and availability of antimalarial drugs, the success of malaria eradication is dampened by the spread of drug and insecticide resistance, unavailability of proper diagnostic treatment and successful vaccine. Among the various approaches, vaccination with the aim of developing protective immunity is the most suited, safe and reliable approach for the entire mankind. Numerous approaches are in use for vaccine development; however, they suffer from the drawbacks that immunity developed is short lived and are both species- and stage-specific. Of late, radiation sterilization has drawn the attention in the vaccine development due to its advantages over the conventional methods, and successful clinical trials of irradiated vaccines against the pathogens and tumor. Recently, a novel approach of genetically attenuated sporozoites (PfRAS, PfSPZ, PFSPZ-GA1 sporozoites vaccines) has shown promising results by generating protective immunity against the homologous and heterogenous infection in the clinical trials. Radiation techniques have also been beneficial in controlling the insects by sterility technique. In this chapter, we have recapitulated the role of radiation biology in the malaria vaccine development with its current status and future challenges associated with the development of radiation attenuated parasite vaccine.
Part of the book: Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation
Among the numerous infectious diseases, malaria still remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Every year more than 200 million cases are registered and death toll is of around 4,00,000. The emergence of insecticide and drug resistance has surged an alarming situation to find an effective means to tackle it. From various approaches used for reducing the damage created by malaria to the society, developing effective vaccine has gained the attention of scientific community. The large genome size (24 MB), heterogeneity of the genes, complex life cycle in two different hosts, and expression of wide range of these genes are claimed to hinder the malaria vaccine development. It requires good understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and its correlation with the sterile protection. Recently, subunit vaccine have shown certain promising responses; however, the currently in use of RTS,S vaccine has failed to generate the long-term sterile protection as well as effector memory CD8+T cells. However, the success of sterile protection through vaccination has been proven long back by experimental approaches, where it could be achieved using irradiated sporozoites (RAS) in rodents and humans. Similarly, GAP (genetically attenuated parasite) and CPS (chloroquine chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium sporozoites) have been shown to induce sterile immunity. Despite all the developments, generation of species and stage specific-CD8+ T cell responses has been modest. In order to generate long-lasting immune response, particularly, liver-stage specific-CD8+ T cells, it is indeed required to study the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire and its implications on the host immune system. In this chapter we will discuss the current status of T cell-based vaccines and the challenges associated with it.
Part of the book: Current Topics and Emerging Issues in Malaria Elimination