The activity of membrane enzymes could be highly determined by the order of the lipid of the membrane and the enzyme distribution. Particularly, the reordering of phospholipid substrates and the local fluctuations of the lipid phases have been included in mathematical models to explain the modulation of the activity of membrane enzymes in extracellular vesicles, liposomes, or microvesicles. The applied principles are different to those derived from the classic considerations such as 3D environment, aqueous, and homogeneous media. Instead, the lateral diffusion of enzyme and substrate and highly nonhomogeneous 2D environment determine fluctuations of enzymatic activity capable to explain metabolic effects, such as in case of peptide-induced membrane components reordering. In this chapter, we review some applications to lipid metabolizing enzymes, due to analytical results of the kinetic theory of membrane enzymes.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles and Their Importance in Human Health