The extracellular environment exhibits a potent effect on cellular growth and development. Exosomes secreted into this milieu carry functional proteins and nucleic acids from the cell of origin to recipient cells, facilitating intercellular communication. This interaction is particularly influential in the tumor microenvironment, transporting oncogenes and oncoproteins within a tumor and to distant sites. The mechanisms by which cells internalize exosomes vary greatly and the factors dictating this process are still unknown. Most cancers show evidence of exosomal transfer of material, but differences in cell type can dictate the effectiveness and extent of the process. Improving therapeutics requires addressing specific cellular functions, illustrating the need to better understand the forces involved in exosome-cell interactions. This review summarizes what is known about the different types of cells that play a role in exosome internalization.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles and Their Importance in Human Health