Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is economically most important crop of Vigna group. It is also known as green gram, golden gram, moong, Chickasaw, Oregon pea, and chop suey bean and this legumes have a strategic position in Southeast Asian countries for nutritional security and sustainable crop production. Being rich in quality protein, minerals and vitamins, they are inseparable ingredients in the diets of a vast majority of Indian population. When supplemented with cereals, they provide a perfect mix of essential amino acids with high biological value. These crops have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (58–109 kg per ha in kg per ha mungbean) in symbiotic association with Rhizobium bacteria, which enables them to meet their own nitrogen requirement and also benefit the succeeding crops. This crop has also been reported to smother weed flora appreciably (20–45%) when intercropped with tall cereals or pigeonpea and consequently, minimize the cost incurred on weed control. On account of short duration and photo-thermo insensitivity, they are considered excellent crops for crop intensification and diversification. A seed of mungbean is highly nutritious containing 24–28% protein, 1.0–1.5% fat, 3.5–4.5% fibre, 4.5–5.5% ash and 59–65% carbohydrates on dry weight basis and provide 334–344 kcal energy. Mungbean protein is considered to be easily digestible. Mungbean are tropical grain legumes widely grown in the sub-tropical countries of South and Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, these crops are cultivated over a wide range of latitudes in the regions where average diurnal temperatures during the growing season are warmer than about 20°C.
Part of the book: Legume Crops