The ophthalmologic examination of the child consists of an assessment of the physiological function, anatomic eye, and visual system status. A comprehensive eye examination of the child should include history of presenting problem, patient’s and family’s medical histories, estimation of fixation and measurement of visual acuity, assessment of binocular vision, Bruckner test, assessment of ocular motility, Hirschberg’s test, cover/uncover test, and assessment of anterior and posterior segments. The order of examination may vary depending on the child’s cooperation. The record of the child’s level of cooperation during the examination is of great benefit in the interpretation of the results.
Part of the book: Eye Motility
In 1949, first intraocular lens (IOL) insertion after cataract surgery was performed by Sir Harold Ridley, in London. Only in the 1970s, the IOL insertion after cataract surgery began to be a standard procedure. The material the first IOL-s were composed of was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The PMMA is a rigid material and the corneal incision had to be at least as big as the IOLs optic and it became its biggest disadvantage in the cataract surgery. The main goal of modern cataract surgery is as smallest incision possible, so the IOL-s had to be flexible and therefore foldable. This goal was achieved by improvements in the IOL design and materials that made them foldable. First foldable IOL-s were made of hydrogel but they were unstable and the development of the first silicone IOL-s overcame that problem. Foldable silicone IOL-s were first implanted in 1978 by Kai-yi Zhou. Foldable IOL’s benefits are its compatibility with a small incision surgery that is self-sealing procedure and the possibility of insertion by a single-use applicators that made the surgery safer. In the future, we can expect some new, different and innovative approaches in the IOL design and materials.
Part of the book: Intraocular Lens
The outbreak of new Cov-2 epidemic was detected in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus −2 and started its rapid spread througth the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on the 30th of January 2020. -2 infection can present with spectrum of clinical manifestations, primary of upper respiratory tract and in some cases, especially in immunocompromised patients can cause changes in lower respiratory tract such as pneumonia and bronchitis. Conjunctivitis is not a common manifestation of SARS-Cov-2 infection. It should however be kept in mind that patients with ocular manifestations and symptoms can represent the COVID-19 cases. CoVs can produce several ocular manifestations from conjunctivitis, uveitis – anterior and posterior, retinitis and optic neuritis.
Part of the book: Infectious Eye Diseases