Defined as a systemic vasculitis developing in a particular genetic background, uveitis is one of the hallmarks to diagnose Behcet’s disease and also one of the important clinical criteria to start systemic treatment. Isolated anterior non granulomatous uveitis with hypopyon, even though a classic clinical picture, actually develops in a minority of cases. In most patients, uveitis is posterior, associated to small vessel occlusive retinal vasculitis, carrying a high risk of permanent retinal damage and subsequent severe visual loss. The guarded natural prognosis of the disease has positively changed in the last decennials with the introduction of biologic immunosuppressant agents in the field of uveitis. Vision can be preserved in most cases provided a prompt early diagnosis and adequate therapy. The potential role of oral bacteria as a triggering factor for autoinflammation in predisposed hosts is interesting, opening the door to prevention in this still not well-understood severe uveitis.
Part of the book: Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Uveitis