Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and herpes zoster are responsible for the majority of cases of viral retinitis and can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised or immunodeficient individuals. Herpes zoster has been strongly incriminated as a causal agent in acute retinal necrosis in immunocompetent patients. Epstein Barr virus has been described in various ocular inflammatory diseases including multifocal choroiditis in healthy patients. In immunocompromised or immunodeficient patients, various opportunistic viral infections can occur; the most common being cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Other less common viruses causing retinal infections include herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The vision-threatening complications associated with infectious viral disease are disastrous in nature due to rapid progression. The inability to control this viral retinitis requires early detection by the clinician with prompt and aggressive initiation of the drug therapy to prevent complications.
Part of the book: Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Uveitis