HVAC systems are milestones of building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants accompanied with indoor air quality. HVAC systems can be classified into central and local systems according to multiple zones, location, and distribution. Primary HVAC equipment includes heating equipment, ventilation equipment, and cooling or air-conditioning equipment. Central HVAC systems locate away from buildings in a central equipment room and deliver the conditioned air by a delivery ductwork system. Central HVAC systems contain all-air, air-water, all-water systems. Two systems should be considered as central such as heating and cooling panels and water-source heat pumps. Local HVAC systems can be located inside a conditioned zone or adjacent to it and no requirement for ductwork. Local systems include local heating, local air-conditioning, local ventilation, and split systems.
Part of the book: HVAC System
Refrigeration systems have the priority in design for residential and industrial applications. The chapter includes five major refrigeration systems: vapor-compression refrigeration; ammonia-water absorption refrigeration; gas refrigeration where standard air is the most popular refrigerant; multi-pressure refrigeration including multistage, cascade, and multipurpose refrigeration system; and heat pump systems. Energy and exergy analysis has been presented for most of the systems. The energetic and the exergetic COP for each system are presented. Renewable energy sources are also discussed including geothermal, solar, and wind energy, a with combination with refrigeration systems in different industrial and residential applications. The overall efficiency of the renewable systems is achieved to be more than 50% providing promising solutions for energy use and having a low environmental impact.
Part of the book: Low-temperature Technologies