The aim of this study is to show the effects of activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by specific ligands, on the expression of responsive genes. Specific AhR-ligands were reported to play an important role in immune regulation. This chapter will focus mostly on the effects of activating AhR with different ligands on autoimmunity. Findings showed the possibility of using the AhR to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in mice. AhR ligation with specific ligands can affect T cell differentiation, through activation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and downregulation of the pro-inflammatory T helper 17 cells. The results showed the effects of specific AhR-ligands on the production of pro-inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory T cell subsets, the potential to use AhR-ligands in regulating the inflammation of organ/tissues in various diseases, suggesting that specific AhR-ligands could be used for immune regulation in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of human and mice.
Part of the book: Immune Response Activation and Immunomodulation
Plants display an assorted collection of reproductive tactics that eventually play a crucial role in perpetuation of species. Plant reproductive ecology is principally concerned with the adaptive implications of the plant in their vicinity, disparity in qualities allied with pollination, seed dispersal, and seedling establishment. The success in reproduction in most flowering plants depends on ecological interactions with pollinators and seed dispersal agents. Modern tactics in reproductive ecology can integrate proper surveys, advanced pollination studies, interaction between flower and pollinators and clear assessments of population genetic structure, which can provide new opportunities for plant reproductive biology. Alfalfa is an important forage legume and known as “Queen of forages” due to its worldwide adaptability, high yield potential and quality. Alfalfa produces seeds which are primarily used for forage production. It is a gift to livestock industry including dairy, beef, horses, and sheep for grazing, silage, hay etc. Alfalfa is also a medicinal herb with antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties, utilized for treatment of arthritis, kidney problems. The seeds are exploited in alfalfa sprout industry. The current chapter highlights the reproductive biology of alfalfa from flower development to seed production and its advances.
Part of the book: Plant Reproductive Ecology