Pathogen infections are recognized by the immune system, which consists of two types of responses: an innate immune response that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and an antigen-specific adaptive immune response. In both responses, there are several activated cells of the immune system, which play a key role in establishing the environment of cytokines, thus directing their differentiation either suppressing or promoting the immune response. This immune response is crucial against pathogen infections. In this chapter, we will describe the crucial role played by different families of cytokines during activation of the immune system to eliminate infectious pathogens.
Part of the book: Immune Response Activation and Immunomodulation
Inflammation is a physiological response of the innate immune system against several endogenous or exogenous stimuli. Inflammation begins with an acute pattern; however, it can become chronic by activating the adaptive immune response through cellular and noncellular mechanisms. The main etiologic factor of periodontal disease is bacteria which substantially harbor the human oral cavity. The most common periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis, whose main characteristic is inflammation. The knowledge of how immune mechanisms and inflammatory responses are regulated is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The purpose of this chapter is to show the current panorama of the immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
Part of the book: Periodontal Disease