A low temperature plasma nitriding process has become one of the most promising methods to make solid-solution hardening by the nitrogen super-saturation, being free from toxicity and energy consumption. High-density radio-frequency and direct current (RF/DC) plasma nitriding process was applied to synthesize the nitrided AISI304 microstructure and to describe the essential mechanism of inner nitriding in this low temperature nitriding (LTN) process. In case of the nitrided AISI304 at 673 K for 14.4 ks, the nitrided layer thickness became 66.5 μm with the surface hardness of 1550 HV and the surface nitrogen content of 9 mass%. This inner nitriding process was governed by the synergetic interrelation among the nitrogen super-saturation, the lattice expansion, the phase transformation, the plastic straining, the microstructure refinement, and the acceleration of nitrogen diffusion. When this interrelation is sustained during the nitriding process, the original austenitic microstructure is homogeneously nitrided to have fine-grained microstructure with the average size of 0.1 μm. Once this interrelation does not work anymore, the homogeneous microstructure changed itself to the heterogeneous one. The plastic straining took place in the selected coarse grains so that the parts of them were only refined. This plastic localization accompanied with the localized phase transformation.
Part of the book: Stainless Steels and Alloys
CVD-diamond coatings were posttreated by plasma oxidation to recycle an original WC (Co) mother tool substrate for recoating and reuse. A developed RF/DC plasma oxidation system was stated together with a hollow cathode device to intensify the oxygen ion and electron densities and with a quantitative plasma diagnosis equipment. Plasma oxidation ashing conditions were optimized by this quantitative diagnosis toward the perfect ashing of diamond films with less residuals and less tool edge damage. Geometric effect of tool teeth structure on this ashing process was discussed by in situ monitoring of plasmas. Engineering solution of this ashing process was proposed for industrial applications.
Part of the book: Chemical Vapor Deposition for Nanotechnology
The pico- and femtosecond laser micromachining has grown up as a reliable tool for precise manufacturing and electronic industries to make fine drilling and machining into hard metals and ceramics as well as soft plastic and to form various nano- and microtextures for improvement of surface functions and properties in products. The ultrashort-pulse laser machining systems were developed to describe the fine microdrilling and microtexturing behavior for various materials. Accuracy in circularity and drilled depth were evaluated to discuss the effect of substrate materials on the laser microdrilling. Accuracy in unit geometry and alignment was also discussed for applications. A carbon base mold substrate was micromachined to transcribe its microtextures to transparent plastics and oxide glasses. Three practical examples were introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of nano-/microtexturing on the improvement of microjoinability, the reduction in friction and wear of mechanical parts and tools, and the surface property control. The fast-rate laser machinability, the spatial resolution in laser microtexturing as well as the laser micromanufacturing capacity were discussed to aim at the future innovations in manufacturing toward the sustainable society.
Part of the book: Micromachining
Austenitic stainless steels have been widely utilized in industries, infrastructures, housing structures, kitchen components, and medical tools. Higher hardness and strength as well as more improvement of wear and corrosion toughness are often required in the industrial and medical applications. Fine-grained stainless steel (FGSS) provides a solution to increase the strength without loss of ductility and toughness. Deeper research and development in manufacturing of FGSS is required to make full use of its properties toward its applications in industries and medicals. First, its mechanical properties and microstructure is introduced as a basic knowledge of FGSS with comparison to the normal stainless steels. Mechanical and laser machinability of FGSS is stated and discussed to finish the products in seconds. Its performance in metal forming and diffusion bonding is explained to explore its applications in third. Its surface treatment and tooling is discussed to describe the grain-size effect on the low temperature plasma nitriding and to demonstrate its effectiveness in die-making in forth. Finally, every aspect in manufacturing of FGSS sheets and solids is summarized as a conclusion.
Part of the book: Engineering Steels and High Entropy-Alloys
Austenitic stainless steel type AISI304 sheets and plates as well as fine-grained type AISI316 (FGSS316) substrates and wires were employed as a work material in the intense rolling, the piercing and the plasma nitriding. AISI304 sheet after intense rolling had textured microstructure in the rolling direction. Crystallographic state changed itself to have distorted polycrystalline state along the shearing plane by piercing, with the strain induced phase transformation. FGSS316 substrates were plasma nitrided at 623 K for 14.4 ks to have two-phase fine nanostructure with the average grain size of 100 nm as a surface layer with the thickness of 30 μm. FGSS316 wires were also plasma nitrided at the same conditions to form the nitrided surface down to the depth of 30 μm. This nitrided wire was further uniaxially loaded in tensile to attain more homogeneously nitrided surface nano-structure and to form the austenitic and martensitic fiber structure aligned in the tensile direction. Each crystallographic structure intrinsic to metals and metallic alloys was tailored to have preferable micro−/nano-structured cells by metal forming and nitrogen supersaturation. The crystallographic change by metal forming in a priori and posterior to nitriding was discussed to find out a new way for materials design.
Part of the book: Electron Crystallography
CVD-diamond coated special tools have been widely utilized to prolong their tool life in practical production lines. WC (Co) punch for fine piercing of metallic sheets required for high wear-toughness to be free from chipping and damages and for high product quality to punch out the holes with sufficient dimensional accuracy. The laser trimming process was developed to reduce the surface roughness of diamond coating down to submicron level and to adjust its diamond layer dimensions with a sharp punch edge for accurate piercing. The pulsed laser irradiation was employed to demonstrate that micro-groove was accurately formed into the diamond coating. Less deterioration in the worked diamond film by this laser treatment was proved by the Raman spectroscopy. The femtosecond laser trimming was proposed to sharpen the punch edge down to 2 μm and to form the nano-textured punch side surfaces with the LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structuring)-period of 300 nm. Fine piercing experiments were performed to demonstrate that punch life was significantly extended to continuous punching in more than 10,000 shots and that mirror-shining hole surfaces were attained in every shot by regularly coining the nanotextures. The sharp punch edge with homogeneous edge profile was responsible for reduction of the induced damages into work sheet by piercing. The punch life was extended by the ejection mechanism of debris particles through the nanotextures on the punch side surface. The present laser treatment was useful in trimming and nanostructuring the complex-shaped punch edge for industrial application.
Part of the book: Engineering Applications of Diamond
The high-density plasma nitriding at 673 K and 623 K was employed to make 10% of nitrogen supersaturation on AISI316 base austenitic stainless steels. The processing parameters and nitrogen-hydrogen gas flow ratio were optimized to increase the yield of N2+ ion and NH-radical for efficient nitriding. The nitrided AISI316 specimens were prepared for multidimensional analysis to describe the fundamental features of low-temperature plasma nitriding. First, macroscopic evaluation revealed that nitrogen supersaturation induced the γ-lattice expansion and the higher nitrogen content than 4% of mass in depth. The mesoscopic analysis describes the holding temperature and initial grain-size effects on the microstructure changes. Plastic straining, grain-size refinement, and nitrogen zone-boundary diffusion processes advance with nitrogen supersaturation to drive the inner nitriding behavior. The microscopic analysis explains the microstructure refinement, the two-phase structuring, and the microstructure modification. Through this multi-dimensional analysis, the essential characteristics of the low-temperature plasma nitriding of 316 austenitic stainless steels were precisely understood to extend the engineering treatise on the bulk nitrogen stainless steels for surface modification and treatment of stainless steels by nitriding. This plasma nitriding was applied to strengthen and harden the AISI316 wire surfaces toward its application on surgery wires.
Part of the book: Stainless Steels
A femtosecond laser micro−/nano-texturing was proposed to fabricate the coated and surface treated dies with the tailored textures for surface decoration and surface property control of metal, polymer and glass products. The polygonal model for microtextures with nanotextures by the LIPSS-effect was utilized to fabricate a DLC-coated SKD11 die with a star-shaped emblem. This die was set up into the cassette die set for directly imprinting this emblem into aluminum alloy and PET sheets. The periodic surface structure was synthesized as a surface geometry model to build up the super-hydrophobic surface on the nitrogen supersaturated AISI316 die. This die was also set up into a hot stamping system to directly imprint the hydrophobic surface onto the phosphorous glass products. Through the femtosecond laser micro−/nano-texturing and CNC-imprinting, the metal, polymer and glass product surfaces were optically decorated to have color grating and plasmonic brilliance and functionally controlled to be hydrophobic.
Part of the book: Terahertz, Ultrafast Lasers and Their Medical and Industrial Applications
Higher heat flux than its normal criticality from high-power transistors, LIDAR (Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging), stacked CPUs, high-power transistors, and lasers must be efficiently transferred to cooling media through the metallic interface. The micro-/nano-textured aluminum and copper devices were highlighted among several approaches and fabricated to enhance the boiling heat transfer process to the subcooled water. The plasma printing was proposed to fabricate a pure aluminum device with concave micro-textures and to describe the boiling heat transfer behavior with comparison to the bare aluminum plate. A copper device was wet-plated to have convex micro-textures and to discuss the effect of micro-textures on the heat transfer characteristics under the forced water cooling by varying the Reynolds number. The boiling curve on the micro-textured interfaces was newly constructed by improving the boiling heat transfer process by micro-/nano-texturing.
Part of the book: Heat Transfer
A plasma nitriding-assisted 3D printing method was developed to build up the micro-punch and micro-die systems. Two dimensional punch head and core-die cavity geometries were ink-jet printed or screen-printed onto the AISI316 and SKD11 tool substrate surfaces in following their two-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data. The low-temperature plasma nitriding process was utilized to make nitrogen supersaturation only into the unprinted substrates. The sand-blasting and chemical etching were utilized to mechanically or chemically remove the printed parts from punch and die substrate. As sand-blasted and chemically etched AISI316 and SKD11 punches and core-dies were simply finished and used as a die set for micro-embossing, micro-piercing and micro-punching processes. In particular, a micro-pump was selected as a miniature mechanical element. Its 3D CAD geometry was sliced to 2D CAD data for each functional AISI304 stainless steel sheet. A pair of punch and die for each 2D CAD geometry for constituent sheet was prepared by the plasma nitriding-assisted 3D printing. Each sheet was punched out by using this set of punch and die to functionalize each sheet unit in correspondence to the sliced CAD data. These constituent sheets were assembled and joined to a structural unit of micro-pump.
Part of the book: Advances in 3D Printing