Measurement of Plasma Tryptophan Metabolites: Clinical and Experimental Application for Depression and Stress States Assessment
There are three pathways in tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) pathway is important in mood, anxiety, memory, and cognition and is impaired in depression. Kynurenine (KYN) pathways are involved in immunity, inflammation, muscles movement, and mental health. We investigated changes in TRP metabolites in plasmas of stressed rats and in depressive patients. TRP metabolite levels in 5-HT and KYN pathways in various brain areas and plasma were increased soon after electric foot shock given to rats but returned to normal 24 h later. Plasma levels of 5-HT were very low or undetectable in patients of monopolar depression. 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA)/TRP ratios or KYN/TRP ratios were not different between healthy controls and depressive patients, indicating 5-HT quickly being degraded into 5-HIAA in patients of depression but KYN levels were not changed in depression. These results indicate that TRP metabolism changes upon stress application and in patients of depression.
Part of the book: Melatonin
Roles of Trans and ω Fatty Acids in Health; Special References to Their Differences between Japanese and American Old Men
Omega and trans-fatty acids play important roles in atherogenesis of vascular system. In this review, we discuss such roles in health; there are much differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) rates between the US and Japan. Fatty acids profiles in the plasma are related to risks of CHD. There have been few studies that compared plasma levels of fatty acids, including trans-fatty acids, in people in Japan and the US. Plasma levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) were higher in Japanese men, and omega-6 fatty acids (e.g., arachidonic acid [AA]) were lower compared with American men. American people had higher plasma levels of the major industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFAs; elaidic and inoelaidic acids), and levels of the potentially cardioprotective, primarily ruminant-derived trans-fatty acid, palmitoelaidic acid (POA) were higher in Japanese men. Plasma levels of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids were also higher in American men. Only intakes of preference drinks have significant correlation with plasma levels of palmitoelaidic acid and linoelaidic acid. The higher levels of DHA and EPA, along with the lower levels of the IP-TFAs, are consistent with the markedly lower risk for coronary heart disease in Japan vs. the US.
Part of the book: Visions of Cardiomyocyte
Studies on Tryptophan Metabolites in Patients of Major Monopolar Depression
Plasma levels of tryptophan metabolites were compared between healthy volunteers and patients of major monopolar depression at various ages and genders. An ultrahigh-speed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry has been used for analysis. There are significant gender and age differences in TRP metabolites of healthy volunteers. At the upper stream of metabolism, metabolites of young women and old men are higher, but at the lower stream of metabolism, their levels are higher in young men and old women. Such differences disappear in plasma of patients of major monopolar depression except for kynurenine (KYN). Daily variation of blood serotonin (5-HT) levels showed that 5-HT levels were low in the morning and increased toward evening, but blood levels of 5-HT were higher in healthy people than depressive people in the morning and decreased to ward evening. Significant age and gender differences of plasma levels of tryptophan metabolites in healthy volunteers disappear in patients of major monopolar depression. Blood levels of 5-HT were higher in healthy people than depressive patients.
Part of the book: Melatonin
Glucose or Sucrose Intakes and Plasma Levels of Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
It is not known whether the administration of glucose or sucrose influences plasma levels of amino acids. We want to know whether plasma levels of amino acids and if the administration of glucose or sucrose are different in young and old men and are influenced by the administration of glucose or sucrose. We found that the levels of most amino acids in plasma are lower in old men than young men. When sucrose was administered to old men, levels of total amino acids decreased significantly in old men. In both old and young men plasma levels of total nonessential amino acids significantly decreased at 120 min. after the administration of glucose but not sucrose. On the other hand, total essential and branched amino acids levels decreased significantly after the administration of both glucose and sucrose in young and old men. From these results, responses to the administration of glucose were different from the response to sucrose between young and old men. Also glucose was more effective in decreasing plasma levels of various amino acids. These results seem to suggest that glucose was more effective in stimulating insulin release and young men were more responsive to sugar than old men in stimulating insulin release.
Part of the book: New Insights Into Metabolic Syndrome
Significance of Trans Fatty Acids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Japanese Men with Coronary Heart Disease
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in ruminant foods (R-TFA) by biohydrogenation in ruminant animals or industrially produced oils (IP-TFA) by partial hydrogenation of vegetable or fish oils. The intake of TFA mainly IP-TFA is associated with an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), while some prospective cohort studies showed that R-TFA were associated with a lower risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Our case-control study showed that trans-C18:2 isomers (IP-TFA) were significantly higher, and palmitelaidic acid (R-TFA) levels were lower in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with healthy men. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is a key enzyme in the conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linoleneic acid to arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA, respectively. Previous studies reported that low D5D estimated from the ratio of AA to dihomo-gamma linolenic acid predicts the incident cardiovascular disease. In our cross-sectional study with 436 men with ACS, various atherogenic lipid markers such as small dense LDL cholesterol and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were significantly inversely associated with D5D activity. We found that the EPA/AA may be a superior risk marker than DHA/AA in terms of correlation with atherogenic lipid profiles.
Part of the book: New Insights Into Metabolic Syndrome
Food Intakes and Correlations between Food Intakes and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Japanese Old Men, Women, and Male Medical Doctors
Objective; Obesity is an important health problem, leading to many metabolic diseases such as type2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer. The are many diet proposals to combat obesity. Since obesity is relatively rare in Japan, we wante to know what kind of foods influence body mass index (BMI) in old Japanese people. METHODS; Healthy participants, old men and women and male medical doctors (MD) were given self-administered diet history questionnaires and described answers on each item by recollection of diets they took (7 days dietary recall). We used a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) by using which the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare reports national Nutrition Surveys. From these questionnaires, we calculated the intakes of energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein or other foods. RESULTS; Me take more alcohol, salt fruit, beans than women. Intakes of major foods such as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein did not influence BMI in men and women. MD with higher BMI tend to take vegetables and fruits. MD may be more health concerned than lay people. CONCLUSION; within the range of foods intakes in Japan, no restriction of any food such as carbohydrate is not necessary for staying lean. Medical doctors seem to be very health concerned compared to lay people.
Part of the book: Role of Obesity in Human Health and Disease
Roles of Glucose and Sucrose Intakes on the Brain Functions Measured by the Working Ability and Morris Maze View all chapters
Sugars such as glucose or sucrose are considered hazardous foods because their intakes lead to obesity, further causing diabetes mellitus (DM), or cardiovascular diseases. However, glucose is needed for many brain functions such as memory and emotion among others. Glucose induces the secretion of insulin, which is needed for transportation of tryptophan from the blood to the brain. Serotonin, which is converted from tryptophan, is important for mood stability, control of emotion, and feeding is inhibited by serotonin in the hypothalamus. We discuss transportation of glucose from the blood to the glia cells. After glycolysis of glucose in the glia lactic acid is transported to cells such as glutaminergic neurons. After the release from neurons glutamic acid is taken up into glia cells and further to neurons again. Sucrose is degraded into glucose and fructose in the intestine thus intake of sucrose increases plasma levels of glucose. We show that intake of sucrose enhanced memory measured by Morris maze in rats and improved the working ability in humans. Roles of glucose and sucrose intakes are discussed together with the function of serotonin in feeding.
Part of the book: Psychology and Pathophysiological Outcomes of Eating