This report reviews the results of an investigation into the effectiveness of public surveillance systems in Cherry Hill, Baltimore City, Maryland. Its chief objective is to discern whether closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras are a successful crime control measure and whether their implementation displaced crime or generated a diffusion of benefits to the areas outside a camera’s viewshed. Previous research on the efficacy of CCTV leaves much to be desired, and the debate is still inconclusive. Thus, this study attempts to move toward new ways of analyzing crime data gathered pre- and post-implementation of cameras in a given target area. To conduct this research, the investigation utilizes a combination of existing and new geographical information systems (GIS) spatial techniques to visualize and measure crime distribution and uses light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to produce a precise mapping of a camera’s line of sight. Findings from each analytical method are compared, contrasted, and combined to provide rounded results. These findings suggest that the implementation of GIS techniques in crime mapping have huge potential and could provide innovative uses for CCTV within law enforcement crime control programs.
Part of the book: Spatial Analysis, Modelling and Planning
Environmental problems resulting from climate change have generated negative impacts on climate-sensitive sectors of African economies. Coping with adverse situations, individuals and households adopt several strategies, including rural-urban migration. Previous literature has investigated the use of migration as a coping strategy to environmental factors. However, specific empirical assessment of links between migration and climatic factors with emphasis on spatial perspectives is not well studied. Accordingly, this study focuses on climatic driver influences on migration from statistical and spatial perspectives using logistic regression and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We combined secondary data sets collected by the World Bank SLMS nationwide household surveys with geo-referenced sub-villages and historical gridded rainfall and temperature data. Results suggest a significant positive relationship between long-run precipitation and migration, while long-run temperature was statistically inconsequential. Results also suggest spatial patterns and climate change drivers are critical in understanding the migration determinants in Tanzania.
Part of the book: GIS and Spatial Analysis