This chapter focuses on the application of proteome analysis techniques to animal reproduction and provides general information on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, chromatographic methods, and mass spectrometer (MS), widely used in proteomics studies. Proteome consists of an entire complement of proteins expressed by a cell, tissue, or organism. Proteomics reveals functions of proteins encoded in the genome. These functions include posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and alterations in the protein synthesis. Animal reproduction takes a key role in livestock, and increasing the reproduction rate in flocks plays an important role in livestock management. Studying the proteins related to reproduction could guide on how to increase fertility. Recent studies addressed the proteome constitution of both male and female reproductive system. Follicular fluid, endometrium, and ovary proteins were analyzed in females by proteomics study, while in males, sperm proteomics was more focused. Information obtained on this issue is also beneficial for the development of reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Strategies to increase fertility in animals can be revealed by proteomic studies, and a more profound knowledge on proteomics may become helpful to develop and enhance the efficiency of reproductive technologies.
Part of the book: New Insights into Theriogenology