Subclinical endometritis is recognized as a cause of poor reproductive performance in dairy cows. Inflammation of the endometrium persisting after postpartum uterine involution has been related with prolonged calving-conception intervals and low fertility in dairy cows. The subclinical nature of this condition makes it necessary in the use of endometrial cytology or biopsy for diagnosing it. There are some controversies among authors in relation to the postpartum period from which a physiological endometrial inflammation should be considered a pathological subclinical endometritis. Therefore, depending on the sampling period after calving, different studies establish a different degree of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration as cutoff point to diagnose subclinical endometritis. Controversies also exist regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its consequences on the fertility of dairy cattle. The aim of this chapter was to review the current knowledge on this uterine pathology.
Part of the book: New Insights into Theriogenology